好好写作

结合中式英语之鉴,简要谈谈如何写出合格的英文。关键还是要多写,写作书是帮助减少错误。

[TOC]

01名词滥用 变动词

由于中英文化和思维习惯的不同,中英文语言表达存在巨大差异。比如中文重语义,讲究“意会”,不注重句与句之间的衔接;而英文重结构,讲究“形合”,注重句子间的逻辑关系。这就导致中国学生受汉语思维影响很难写好英语作文。在英文写作中,学生常犯的一种错误叫“名词滥用”,即在写作中一连出现多个名词并列。“名词滥用”的修改方法主要有三种:① 把名词改成动词;② 把名词改成动名词;③ 把名词改成形容词。本集课程重点对第一种方法进行详细讲解。

▍To the Reader

This book can be used either in the classroom or for independent study. It is addressed primarily to Chinese translators and to advanced students of English who are practicing translation. I hope, however, that it will prove equally useful to other Chinese who are called upon to write English and who wish to improve their mastery of it—people working in journalism, foreign affairs, business, tourism, advertising, and many other fields.

▍Replacing the Noun with a Verb

① 例1:

A: Adherence to Marxism is vital to China, and so is adherence to socialism. 【重复 ,而且应该强调坚持的动作】

译文:坚持马克思主义对中国很重要,坚持社会主义也很重要。

B: It is vital for us to adhere to Marxism and socialism.

② 例2:

A: Otherwise, there can be no achievements in our work.

译文:不然,我们的工作很难有成果。

B: Otherwise, we can achieve nothing. 【简短 强调主语我们】

③ 例3:

A: Such behavior on the part of leading cadres will encourage extravagance.

译文:领导干部的这种做法会导致铺张浪费。

B: If leading cadres behave that way, they will encourage extravagance.

(选自《中式英语之鉴》pp. 175-176)

▍Sample Topic

In many countries, women are allowed to take maternity leave from their jobs during the first month after their baby is born. Do you think the advantages of maternity leave outweigh the disadvantages?

▍Sample Essay

Version 1

Implementing a fair employee benefits policy is crucial to any company’s achievement of long-term success. This is an especially sensitive topic when it comes to female employees who plan to have babies, as they are in strong need of some time-off to take care of their newborn. I am a big proponent for allowing new moms to take at least a month off from work, because the advantages of such a policy far outweigh its disadvantages, for both the employee and the organization.

Version 2

Implementing a fair employee benefits policy is crucial for any company to achieve long-term success. This is an especially sensitive topic when it comes to female employees who plan to have babies, as they will need some time-off to take care of their newborn. I am a big proponent for allowing new moms to take at least a month off from work, because the advantages of such a policy far outweigh its disadvantages, for both the employee and the organization.

02 名词滥用 变动名词

Replacing the noun with a gerund

As you will recall from your study of English grammar, a gerund is the “-ing” form of a verb that functions as a noun. In the example just above, “reading” is a gerund; “replacing” in the subtitles is another. Gerunds, which are part verb, part noun, partake of the nature of both. Like nouns, they can be heavy and awkward — that is why we changed “reading” to “to read.” But they also inherit some of the virtues of their parent verbs. Like verbs, gerunds can impart motion to a sentence that is stiff and lifeless. And because, like verbs, they usually require the writer to express a subject or a direct object — that is, to say plainly who is doing what — they can clarify meaning. For these reasons, it is often useful to substitute gerunds for nouns, as in the following examples:

A: economic revitalization will be an arduous task

B: revitalizing the economy will be an arduous task

A: the company began its issuance of 100 million foreign currency B shares yesterday

B: the company began issuing 100 million foreign currency B shares yesterday

A: we shall transform the national bourgeoisie through cooperation with it

B: we shall transform the national bourgeoisie by cooperating with it

A: we have to concentrate our efforts on agricultural reinforcement

B: we have to concentrate on strengthening agriculture [ Review; “Efforts” was eliminated because it is understood in “concentrate.” ]

03 名词滥用 变形容词或副词

由于中英文化和思维习惯的不同,中英文语言表达存在巨大差异。比如中文重语义,讲究“意会”,不注重句与句之间的衔接;而英文重结构,讲究“形合”,注重句子间的逻辑关系。这就导致中国学生受汉语思维影响很难写好英语作文。在英文写作中,学生常犯的一种错误叫“名词滥用”,即在写作中一连出现多个名词并列。“名词滥用”的修改方法主要有三种:① 把名词改成动词;② 把名词改成动名词;③ 把名词改成形容词。本集课程重点对第三种方法进行详细讲解。

▍Author’s Comment

Sometimes good results can be achieved by substituting an adjective (or a verb + adjective) or, more rarely, an adverb.

▍Replacing the Noun with an Adjective or Adverb

① 例1:

A: This accounts for the unsoundness in organization of these enterprises.

译文:这是企业管理不善的原因。

B: This accounts for the poor organization of these enterprises.

② 例2:

A: Silk undershirts are rich in elasticity.

译文:丝绸汗衫富有弹性。

B: Silk undershirts are highly elastic.

③ 例3:

A: We must guard against blindness in action.

译文:我们必须要警惕盲目行动。

B: We must guard against acting blindly.

(Note that the second noun, “action,” has been replaced by the gerund “acting.”) [我们要警惕的是动作而不是瞎]

(选自《中式英语之鉴》p. 177)

▍Sample Topic

Do you agree or disagree with following statement? Playing sports teaches people more lessons about life.

▍Sample Essay

Version 1

People live, people learn, sometimes at school and other times elsewhere. Through playing sports, many people have learnt lessons of great importance, and some will even go as far as saying that sports teaches us about life more than anything else does. While I understand the sentiment, I think people can usually learn from other places what they can learn from sports, although sports can be an especially effective way to teach certain qualities such as decisiveness and persistence.

Version 2

People live, people learn, sometimes at school and other times elsewhere. Many people have learnt important life lessons from playing sports, and some will even go as far as saying that sports teaches us about life more than anything else does. While I understand the sentiment, I think people can usually learn from other places what they can learn from sports, although sports can be especially effective in teaching certain qualities such as decisiveness and persistence.

04 代词误用 先行词不明确

在英文写作中,中国学生还常犯的一种错误叫“代词误用”,即代词的使用缺少与之相对应的先行词。代词误用主要分为三种情况:① 先行词表述不明确,包括先行词的缺失和代词指代错误;② 先行词含糊不清,指存在多个先行词,代词指代有歧义;③ 先行词离代词太远,而代词的指代,一般采用就近原则。本集课程重点对第一种错误及其修改方法进行详细讲解。

▍Author’s Comment

If the antecedent of a pronoun is not clear, most often it is simply because the antecedent is missing. It may be implied, but it is not present on the page.

When a pronoun has no stated antecedent, it will either a) remain unattached, or b) attach itself to some word that it was not intended to refer to. Consequently, the reader trying to understand the sentence in question will either a) be left in doubt, or b) mistake the sense.

▍When Antecedents Are Not Explicitly Stated

① 例1:

A: The second question concerns close planting. It should neither be spread out too thinly nor planted too closely.

译文:第二个问题关于密集种植。作物种植既不应过分分散,也不要过于密集。

B: The second question concerns close planting. Crops should be neither spread out too thinly nor planted too closely.

② 例2:

A: Minutes of an interim telephone report to Mao Zedong during his investigation in Handan Prefecture, Hebei Province.

译文:这是周总理在河北省邯郸市调查期间和毛主席用电话所作报告的会议记录。

B: Minutes of an interim report telephoned to Mao Zedong during an investigation in Handan Prefecture, Hebei Province.

③ 例3:

A: In Africa too, the strong and common voice of the Organization of African Unity is to ask other countries not to interfere in their internal affairs.

译文:非洲国家通过非洲统一组织一致表态,严词要求其他国家不要干涉他们的内政。

B: The African countries too, through the Organization of African Unity, demand with one voice that no other country interfere in their internal affairs.

(选自《中式英语之鉴》pp. 206-208)

▍Sample Topic

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is more important to spend more money on improving facilities than hiring famous teachers.

▍Sample Essay

Version 1

In many different parts of the world, a common complain is that they are not satisfied with their current education system. When it comes to improvements, some reformers think they【可能误以为reformers】 should spend more money on improving facilities than on hiring famous teachers. In my opinion, as long as the basic comfort of attending school is provided, it is more important to spend money on teachers, because this approach creates more meaningful impact to the students and the school alike.

Version 2

People in different parts of the world have one thing in common: they are not satisfied with their current education system. When it comes to improvements, some reformers think it is more critical to spend money on improving facilities than on hiring famous teachers. In my opinion, as long as the basic comfort of attending school is provided, it is more important to spend money on teachers, because this approach creates more meaningful impact to the students and the school alike.

05 代词误用 先行词含糊

在英文写作中,中国学生还常犯的一种错误叫“代词误用”,即代词的使用缺少与之相对应的先行词。代词误用主要分为三种情况:① 先行词表述不明确,包括先行词的缺失和代词指代错误;② 先行词含糊不清,指存在多个先行词,代词指代有歧义;③ 先行词离代词太远,而代词的指代,一般采用就近原则。本集课程重点对第二种错误及其修改方法进行详细讲解。

▍Author’s Comment

If there is more than one word in a sentence to which a pronoun might refer, readers may not be sure which is the intended antecedent. Antecedents can be even more ambiguous when the same pronoun appears twice in one passage but refers to two different things. Readers are then left on their own to match up the pairs correctly.

▍When Antecedents Are Ambiguous

① 例1:

A: Since the purchase of grain is mostly entrusted to state companies, and grain traders are allowed to carry no more than 50 jin with them, their regulating role is restricted.

译文:由于粮食购买主要委托给国有企业,粮食贸易商允许携带的粮食不超过50斤,所以贸易商在管控上起的作用有限。

B: Since the purchase of grain is mostly entrusted to state companies, and grain traders are allowed to carry no more than 50 jin with them, the traders’ regulating role is restricted.

② 例2:

A: The price of one ton of crude oil is 1,300 yuan ($175) on the market, while it is only 800 yuan ($96) if it is sold to the government.

译文:一吨原油在市场上的售价为1300元(175美元),但出售给政府仅为800元(96美元)。

B: The price of one ton of crude oil is 1,300 yuan ($175) if it is sold on the market but only 800 yuan ($96) if it is sold to the government.

③ 例3:

A: Government departments, schools, factories and enterprises should fix the number of their workers and other employees and according to their specific work and production requirements set work loads for all of them.

译文:政府部门、学校、工厂和企业应确定员工人数,并根据单位需要为员工设定工作量。

B: Government departments, schools, factories and enterprises should fix the number of their employees and set work loads for all of them in accordance with the units’ needs.

(选自《中式英语之鉴》pp. 211-212)

▍Sample Topic

What is the most important action for the government to take for the protection of environmental problems?

  1. fund researches on new energy sources such as solar and wind power

  2. protect forests and natural wildlife species

  3. pass and enforce laws to reduce the pollution

▍Sample Essay

Version 1

In both the public sector and the private sector, people have become increasingly aware of the importance of environmental protection. One of the constantly asked questions is what role the government should play in leading positive environmental change. I think it should focus on funding the development of renewable energy, because it requires consistent long-term investment. Such a focus on the government’s part will also in turn enforce wildlife protection and reduce pollution.

Version 2

In both the public sector and the private sector, people have become increasingly aware of the importance of environmental protection. One of the constantly asked questions is what role the government should play in leading positive environmental change. I think the government should focus on funding the development of renewable energy, because it requires consistent long-term investment. Such a focus on the government’s part will also in turn enforce wildlife protection and reduce pollution.

06 代词误用 先行词过远

在英文写作中,中国学生还常犯的一种错误叫“代词误用”,即代词的使用缺少与之相对应的先行词。代词误用主要分为三种情况:① 先行词表述不明确,包括先行词的缺失和代词指代错误;② 先行词含糊不清,指存在多个先行词,代词指代有歧义;③ 先行词离代词太远,而代词的指代,一般采用就近原则。本集课程重点对第三种错误及其修改方法进行详细讲解。

▍Author’s Comment

When a pronoun stands too far away from its antecedent, readers may fail to connect the two words. And when the antecedent is too remote, just as when it is missing, the fickle pronoun will very probably cling to another, closer word, distorting the meaning.

▍When Antecedents Are Too Remote

① 例1:

A: That is the test of whether you are truly carrying out the decisions or just going through the motions, dragging your feet and perhaps even deliberately misinterpreting them.

译文:这才能够检验这些决定是否会被贯彻下去,还是在做表面功夫,甚至刻意曲解。

B: That is the test of whether you are truly complying or just going through the motions, dragging your feet and perhaps even deliberately misinterpreting decisions.

② 例2:

A: To enforce the people’s democratic dictatorship, we must launch an unremitting struggle against bureaucracy, which is of great importance.

译文:为加强人民民主专政,我们必须和官僚主义斗争到底,这极其重要。

B: To enforce the people’s democratic dictatorship, we must launch an unremitting struggle against bureaucracy, a struggle which is of great importance.

③ 例3:

A: The congress has, for the first time, made a systematic exposition of the basic guiding principle of the primary stage of socialism, which is of important immediate significance.

译文:这届代表大会有史以来第一次系统阐述了社会主义初级阶段的基本纲领,其重要性不言而喻。

B: For the first time, the Congress has systematically set forth the basic guiding principles of the primary stage of socialism. This statement is of immediate importance.

(选自《中式英语之鉴》pp. 213-214)

▍Sample Topic

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is better to make friends with intelligent people than with the people who have a good sense of humor.

▍Sample Essay

Version 1

The debate of IQ vs EQ is all around our lives, from business to friendship. Some people think it is better to make friends with intelligent people, rather than with humorous people. I think this is a pointless notion, because it is based on the flawed assumption that a person must decide between intelligence and humor, which can be offensive. I also believe that the true test of friendship should be based not on any particular trait, but on shared core values.

Version 2

The debate of IQ vs EQ is all around our lives, from business to friendship. Some people think it is better to make friends with intelligent people, rather than with humorous people. I think this is a pointless notion, to some extent an offensive one, because it is based on the flawed assumption that a person can only be either smart or funny. I also believe that the true test of friendship should be based not on any particular trait, but on shared core values.

07 短语错位

在英文写作中,除了词汇的选择与搭配问题,还需要注重语序。语序是指语言单位按照一定规则组成的先后顺序。不管是词汇、短语还是从句,排列顺序不同,往往传递的意思也有所不同。这就要求我们在写作时,根据自己所要表达的意思,使句子遵循正确的逻辑顺序,防止读者产生误解。英文中常见的语序错误有两种,分别是短语错位和从句错位。本集课程重点对短语错位及其修改方法进行详细讲解。

▍Author’s Comment

The kind of phrase most likely to cause trouble is one that serves as an adjective or adverb. Such a phrase is misplaced when it modifies, or appears to modify, some element in the sentence other than the one intended.

▍Misplaced Phrases

① 例1:

A: In an article celebrating the 28th anniversary of the founding of the Chinese Communist Party in 1949, Mao Zedong said…

译文:1949年,在一篇庆祝中国共产党成立28周年的文章中,毛主席这样说道:

B: In 1949, in an article celebrating the 28th anniversary of the founding of the Chinese Communist Party, Mao Zedong said…

② 例2:

A: Over the past decades he has devoted the greater part of his life to developing and spreading improved orange strains among fruit growers.

译文:在过去的几十年里,他致力于开发改良的橙子品种并将这些改良过的品种推广给果农。

B: Over the past decades he has devoted the greater part of his life to developing improved orange strains and spreading them among fruit growers.

③ 例3:

A: Inside the grand Dacheng Palace in the middle of the Confucius Temple, musicians will play tunes allegedly refined by Confucius, using antique instruments including the stringed guqin.

译文:在孔子庙中间的大成殿内,乐手将使用包括古琴在内的古乐器来演奏一些乐曲,据称这些乐曲是由孔子改编的。

B: Inside the grand Dacheng Palace in the middle of the Confucius Temple, musicians using antique instruments, including the stringed guqin, will play tunes allegedly refined by Confucius.

(选自《中式英语之鉴》pp. 246-247)

▍Sample Topic

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The way a person dresses is a good indication of his or her personality or character. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

▍Sample Essay

Version 1

Different people have different interpretations of what fashion means and how they’d like to dress. Some argue that the clothes a person wears say a good deal about his personality or character. I think this is a good way to look at fashion, because clothing is both a conscious choice and a subconscious reflection, for the occasion and of one’s personal identity.

Version 2

Different people have different interpretations of what fashion means and how they’d like to dress. Some argue that the clothes a person wears say a good deal about his personality or character. I think this is a good way to look at fashion, because clothing is both a conscious choice for the occasion and a subconscious reflection of one’s personal identity.

08 从句错位

在英文写作中,除了词汇的选择与搭配问题,还需要注重语序。语序是指语言单位按照一定规则组成的先后顺序。不管是词汇、短语还是从句,排列顺序不同,往往传递的意思也有所不同。这就要求我们在写作时,根据自己所要表达的意思,使句子遵循正确的逻辑顺序,防止读者产生误解。英文中常见的语序错误有两种,分别是短语错位和从句错位。本集课程重点对从句错位及其修改方法进行详细讲解。

▍Author’s Comment

Logically misplaced clauses are less frequent in Chinglish than misplaced phrases. When they do appear, however, it is usually for the same reason: the clause in question acts as a modifier, and the translator has inadvertently made it modify the wrong element in the sentence.

Logically, a subordinate clause should occupy a subordinate position in a sentence. And since, as we have seen, English normally reserves the final place for the most important idea, the subordinate clause should generally precede the main one.

▍Misplaced Clauses

① 例1:

A: So long as we strictly implement the Government Administration Council’s Decision on Unifying National Financial and Economic Work, after we go through several months of difficulties, we have every reason to expect that the financial situation will gradually improve.

译文:只要我们坚决贯彻中央人民政府政务院《关于统一国家财政经济工作的决定》,我们完全有理由相信经过几个月的困难之后,财务状况将逐步改善。

B: So long as we strictly implement the Government Administration Council’s Decision on Unifying National Financial and Economic Work, we have every reason to expect that after a few difficult months the financial situation will gradually improve.

② 例2:

A: We should also review our experience frequently and make adjustments in light of the actual conditions when we find problems.【不知道修饰的是谁 experience 还是 make adjustments】

译文:我们还应经常回顾我们的经验,当发现问题时根据实际情况进行调整。

B: We should also review our experience frequently and, when we find problems, make adjustments in light of the conditions.

(选自《中式英语之鉴》pp. 248-249)

▍Sample Topic

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is easier to be well-educated today than it was in the past.

▍Sample Essay

Version 1

Education has been an important topic from ancient times to the present day. Many people tend to believe that it is easier to be well-educated today than it was in the past, as the average rate of illiteracy continues to decline around the world. I am one of those people, and I think the accessibility of quality education has been dramatically improved thanks to technology advancement in both the creation and the distribution of educational content.

Version 2

Education has been an important topic from ancient times to the present day. As the average rate of illiteracy continues to decline around the world, many people tend to believe that it is easier to be well-educated today than it was in the past. I am one of those people, and I think the accessibility of quality education has been dramatically improved thanks to technology advancement in both the creation and the distribution of educational content.

09 垂悬修饰语 分词

“垂悬修饰语”是指修饰语在句中找不到逻辑上被修饰的对象,它一般出现在句首,用作状语,这也是中国学生在英文写作中常犯的一种语法错误。垂悬修饰语通常有以下三种类型:垂悬分词、垂悬动名词和垂悬不定式。修改垂悬修饰语的方法主要是修改垂悬修饰语部分或修改主句部分,使主句的主语与垂悬修饰语的逻辑主语保持一致。本集课程重点对垂悬分词及其修改方法进行详细讲解。

▍Author’s Comment

As you know from your study of English, participles are verb forms that act as adjectives. In regular verbs, the present participle ends in -ing (a pleasing child) and the past participle in -ed (a pleased child).

Like any adjective, a participle needs to be closely linked to the noun or pronoun it modifies. When it is not, it is said to “dangle.” The dangling participle is one of the most common mistakes in the writing of native speakers of English, so we should not be surprised that it is frequently found in Chinglish as well.

▍Dangling Participles

错误示例:

① 例1:

A: Using either military or peaceful means, most of the remaining enemy forces were put out of action.

译文:我们通过军事或和平手段使大部分敌军丧失战斗力。

B: Using either military or peaceful means, we put most of the remaining enemy forces out of action.

② 例2:

A: Conveniently situated, traffic from Jin Hui Tower to Beijing International Airport takes only 1/2 hour via the Third Ring Road.

译文:金辉塔地理位置方便,去北京国际机场走三环仅需半小时。

B: The Jin Hui Tower is conveniently situated, only 1/2 hour from Beijing International Airport via the Third Ring Road.

③ 例3:

A: Looking back over the past seventy years, the Chinese people are more convinced than ever that their choice of socialism as their goal has been correct. 正确例子

译文:回顾过去70年,中国人民比以往任何时候都更加坚信坚持走社会主义道路是正确的。

④ 例4:

B: Performed by the China Youth Art Theater, the play describes the different lifestyles, feelings, and concepts of two brothers, one a brick layer and the other a painter.

译文:中国青年艺术剧院表演的这部剧描写了两个人不同的生活方式、情感和价值观:一个是搬砖工人,另一个是画家。

(选自《中式英语之鉴》pp. 285-286)

▍Sample Topic

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? All universities students should take basic science courses regardless of their fields of study.

▍Sample Essay

Version 1

STEM, which stands for Science, Technology, Engineering and Math, has recently become a trending keyword in education. Some educators propose that all universities should require their students to take basic science even if not majoring in STEM. I think this is a great idea, because it is important to help students be exposed to a broad spectrum of subjects before committing to a specialization, and the problem-solving skills in science and engineering can be useful in their future life, regardless of their career choice.

Version 2

STEM, which stands for Science, Technology, Engineering and Math, has recently become a trending keyword in education. Some educators propose that all university students should be required to take basic science even if they do not major in STEM. I think this is a great idea, because it is important for students to be exposed to a broad spectrum of subjects before committing to a specialization, and the problem-solving skills in science and engineering can be useful in their future life, regardless of their career choice.

10 垂悬修饰语 动名词

“垂悬修饰语”是指修饰语在句中找不到逻辑上被修饰的对象,它一般出现在句首,用作状语,这也是中国学生在英文写作中常犯的一种语法错误。垂悬修饰语通常有以下三种类型:垂悬分词、垂悬动名词和垂悬不定式。修改垂悬修饰语的方法主要是修改垂悬修饰语部分或修改主句部分,使主句的主语与垂悬修饰语的逻辑主语保持一致。本集课程重点对垂悬动名词及其修改方法进行详细讲解。

▍Author’s Comment

Unlike a participle, which can readily stand alone as an adjective (a pleasing child, a pleased child), a gerund by itself rarely serves as a modifier. But it is often part of a prepositional phrase that serves as a modifier (by pleasing the child, in trying to please the child, etc.)

In Phrases of this kind the subject of the gerund is not expressed but only implied. Still, when the phrase stands at the beginning, that unexpressed subject must be logically related to the expressed subject of the sentence. Otherwise, like an opening present participle, the gerund will “dangle.” The rule here is simple: the implied subject of an opening gerund must be the same as the subject of the sentence.

▍Dangling Gerunds

① 例1:

A: Fortunately, by cutting the number of employees, the annual debt of the firm has decreased.

译文:幸运的是,公司裁员之后,每年的债务减少了。

B: Fortunately, by cutting the number of employees, the firm has reduced its annual debt.

② 例2:

A: After gaining some experience, these measures will gradually be introduced in other regions across the country.

译文:在我们积累一些经验之后,这些方法会在全国其他地区陆续推广。

B: After we have gained some experience, these measures will be gradually introduced in other regions across the country.

正确示例:

③ 例3:

A: After occupying the county of Tongdao, on the southwest border of Hunan Province, the troops entered Guizhou.

译文:在占领了湖南省西南边界的通道县之后,部队挺进了贵州。

④ 例4:

A: In establishing special economic zones and implementing an open policy, we must make it clear that our guideline is just that—to open and not to close.

译文:在建立经济特区和实施改革开放的时候,我们应该明确方向——应该越发开放而不是越发闭塞。

(选自《中式英语之鉴》pp. 295-296)

▍Sample Topic

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The rules that the whole society today expects young people to follow and obey are too strict.

▍Sample Essay

Version 1

To obey or not obey, that is the question for young people. It seems paradoxical—sometimes young people are encouraged to disrupt the rules, while other times urged to follow them. Concerned with the situation, the current societal rules are too strict and young people are constantly asked to be obedient. After looking around, most societies (at least the rapidly growing ones) are actually encouraging young people not to follow the status quo. This is true in the field of technology, art, and even in the arena of politics.

Version 2

To obey or not obey, that is the question for young people. It seems paradoxical—sometimes young people are encouraged to disrupt the rules, while other times urged to follow them. Some people are concerned that the current societal rules are too strict and young people are constantly asked to be obedient. But if we look around, we can see that most societies (at least the rapidly growing ones) are actually encouraging young people not to follow the status quo. This is true in technology, in art, and even in the political arena.

11 垂悬修饰语 不定式

“垂悬修饰语”是指修饰语在句中找不到逻辑上被修饰的对象,它一般出现在句首,用作状语,这也是中国学生在英文写作中常犯的一种语法错误。垂悬修饰语通常有以下三种类型:垂悬分词、垂悬动名词和垂悬不定式。修改垂悬修饰语的方法主要是修改垂悬修饰语部分或修改主句部分,使主句的主语与垂悬修饰语的逻辑主语保持一致。本集课程重点对垂悬不定式及其修改方法进行详细讲解。

▍Author’s Comment

Infinitives and infinitive phrases can also be modifiers. And although they generally give less trouble than participles and gerunds, they too can dangle.

The rule for infinitives is the same as for gerunds: the implied subject of an opening infinitive must be the same as the subject of the sentence.

▍Dangling Infinitives

正确示例:

① 例1:

A: To guarantee the establishment and improvement of a socialist market system, we must have a complete legal system.

译文:为了保证建立并完善社会主义市场经济,我们必须有完备的法律体系。

错误示例:

② 例2:

A: In order to ensure achievement of the Party’s political, military and economic objectives, Mao emphasized that the Party must first consolidate its ranks.

译文:为了确保实现党的政治、军事和经济目标,毛主席强调我党首先必须要简化层级。

B: Mao emphasized that to ensure achievement of its political, military and economic objectives, the Party must first consolidate its ranks.

③ 例3:

A: In order to serve you better, please fill out a deposit slip before approaching the window.

译文:为了更好地为您服务,请在前往柜台前填好存款单。

B: To save time for the teller, please fill out a deposit slip before approaching the window.

C: In order to serve you better, we ask you to fill out a deposit slip before approaching the window.

(选自《中式英语之鉴》pp. 299-301)

▍Sample Topic

Some people think that it is an important part of a child’s education to go on field trips (for example, museums), while other people think a child’s time is better spent learning in a classroom at school. What is your opinion?

▍Sample Essay

Version 1

The best way to educate children is every parent’s concern, and to address it, great efforts have been made by schools. Some people think that taking children out on field trips, such as visiting museums, is an essential part of the learning experience, while others believe they are better off learning in a classroom. I think teachers should arrange field trips for their students as often as possible, because experiencing is a much more effective way than reading from a textbook. Field trips will also give kids a stronger sense of community, and even help them make better career choices when they grow up.

Version 2

The best way to educate children is every parent’s concern, and schools have been trying hard to address it. Some people think that taking children out on field trips, such as visiting museums, is an essential part of the learning experience, while others believe the children are better off learning in a classroom. I think teachers should arrange field trips for their students as often as possible, because experiencing is a much more effective way than reading from a textbook. Field trips will also give kids a stronger sense of community, and even help them make better career choices when they grow up.

12 平行结构 并列连词

平行结构是指将逻辑上属于同一语法成分的词连接起来的结构,特点是整齐匀称,读起来铿锵有力。作为英文写作中一种重要且常见的修辞手法,不管是英语学习者还是英语母语人士都常常掉入平行结构的陷阱里。平行结构主要分为三块:并列连词的连接、关联连词的连接和比较关系。本集课程重点对并列连词的用法及其修改方法进行详细讲解。

▍Author’s Comment

Many of the most memorable lines in English, from the humblest folk sayings to the most highly polished literary passages, owe their enduring power to the parallel statement of parallel thoughts.

Where there’s a will, there’s a way.

To be, or not to be: that is the question.

Parallelism is either required, desirable, or possible in a great variety of situations, each affording opportunities for error. Wilson Follet warns of “a labyrinth of ways to go wrong,” and not all of those ways are easy to recognize.

▍Elements Linked by Coordinating Conjunctions

① 例1:

A: Also to be coordinated (between Hong Kong and Guangdong) are water supply, security, and how to move people and trucks across the border more efficiently.

译文:还需要协调的有:供水、安保以及人口和车辆的高效通行。

B: Also to be coordinated are water supply, security, and efficient movement of people and trucks across the border.

② 例2:

A: Timber is needed for construction and to withstand floods.

译文:木材可以用来建筑,还可以用来抵御洪水。

B: Timber is needed to provide material for construction and to help withstand floods.

③ 例3:

A: Adhering to the principles of integrating Marxism-Leninism with the realities of the Chinese revolution, seeking truth from facts, and the mass line, the Party skillfully wielded the two weapons—the United Front and armed struggle.

译文:坚持把马克思列宁主义和中国革命实践相结合,坚持实事求是,坚持人民群众路线,我党善于使用两个基本武器:统一战线和武装斗争。

B: Adhering to the principles of integrating Marxism-Leninism with the realities of the Chinese revolution, seeking truth from facts, and following the mass line, the Party skillfully wielded two weapons: the united front and armed struggle.

(选自《中式英语之鉴》pp. 336-337)

▍Sample Topic

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Grandparents cannot give useful advice to their grandchildren because the world of today and the world of 50 years ago are too different.

▍Sample Essay

Version 1

“Grandpa likes to give lectures” is a stereotype that many children have towards the older generation. But grandpa has a life-time of wisdom to share and for the benefits of his grandchildren. The real question is: is grandpa’s advice still relevant, considering he grew up in a time drastically different from today? I think the answer is largely yes, because some wisdom stands the test of time.

Version 2

“Grandpa likes to give lectures” is a stereotype that many children have towards the older generation. But grandpa has a life-time of wisdom to share and he usually means well. The real question is: since grandpa grew up in a time drastically different from today, is his advice still relevant? I think the answer is largely yes, because some wisdom stands the test of time.

13 平行结构 关联连词

平行结构是指将逻辑上属于同一语法成分的词连接起来的结构,特点是整齐匀称,读起来铿锵有力。作为英文写作中一种重要且常见的修辞手法,不管是英语学习者还是英语母语人士都常常掉入平行结构的陷阱里。平行结构主要分为三块:并列连词的连接、关联连词的连接和比较。本集课程重点对关联连词的用法及其修改方法进行详细讲解。

▍Author’s Comment

The so-called correlative conjunctions are connectives that work together in pairs. The following are the most common:

Both… and

Either…or

Neither…nor

Not…but

Not only…but also

In these combinations, the first word announces what is coming next: two equivalent terms joined by a coordinating conjunction. By specifically drawing attention to the parallelism ahead, it sets up in the reader’s mind an inevitable expectation.

Thus, when correlative conjunctions are used, it is particularly important that the terms they connect be strictly parallel. The grammatical construction following the second conjunction must correspond exactly to the one following the first.

▍Elements Linked by Correlative Conjunctions

① 例1:

A: The delegates [to a conference on meat production] agreed that these are vital issues for the next century, both for people’s quality of life and for saving the environment.

译文:肉食品加工会议的代表们一致认为这些是接下来100年来最重要的问题,对人民的生活质量和环境保护都非常重要。

B: The delegates agreed that these are vital issues for the next century, affecting both the quality of the people’s lives and the preservation of the environment.

② 例2:

A: This will help the authorities set prices that are appropriate not only for their own localities but also in relation to prices throughout the country.

译文:这可以帮助有关部门制定对于当地和全国市场都合理的价格。

B: This will help the authorities set prices that are appropriate not only in relation to their own local conditions but also in relation to prices throughout the country.

(选自《中式英语之鉴》pp. 339-340)

▍Sample Topic

In order to attract more tourists, the government could either improve safety by hiring more police or improve its appearance by repairing old buildings and streets. Which way do you think is more effective?

▍Sample Essay

Version 1

Some people claim that the Egyptian government built the pyramids in the early 1900s to attract tourists. Those are probably the same people who think moon-landing was fake too, but one thing remains real: tourism is crucial to the economy, and governments care much about it. Instead of building pyramids, the government can either improve public safety by recruiting more officers or renewing the look of buildings and streets. I would vote for the first option, because it is more effective in both the short term and the long term. Besides, the second option may actually hurt tourism.

Version 2

Some people claim that the Egyptian government built the pyramids in the early 1900s to attract tourists. Those are probably the same people who think moon-landing was fake too, but one thing remains real: tourism is crucial to the economy, and governments care much about it. Instead of building pyramids, the government can either improve public safety by recruiting more officers or renew the look of buildings and streets. I would vote for the first option, because it is more effective in both the short term and the long term. Besides, the second option may actually hurt tourism.

14平行结构 比较关系

平行结构是指将逻辑上属于同一语法成分的词连接起来的结构,特点是整齐匀称,读起来铿锵有力。作为英文写作中一种重要且常见的修辞手法,不管是英语学习者还是英语母语人士都常常掉入平行结构的陷阱里。平行结构主要分为三块:并列连词的连接、关联连词的连接和比较关系。本集课程重点对比较关系的用法及其修改方法进行详细讲解。

▍Author’s Comment

Items that are being compared (or contrasted) are linked not by conjunctions but by such words as “like” or “unlike,” “as much as,” “the same as,” “different from,” “greater than,” “less desirable than,” “more rapidly than,” and so on. By definition, elements in a comparison should be parallel logically; otherwise, the comparison is false.

▍Elements Linked in Comparison

① 例1:

A: Just like the Crowne Plaza, all rooms feature an electronic door lock, a private safe, two telephones with IDD (International Direct Dialing).

译文:和皇冠假日酒店一样,这些房间都配有电子锁、私人保险箱、两个国际长途直拨电话。

B: Like the rooms in the Crowne Plaza, all those in the Holiday Inn feature an electronic door lock, a private safe, two telephones with IDD.

② 其他示例:

·She did not like revising as much as translating.

·She thought it was more creative to translate than to revise the work of others.

·She was less willing to take on a revision than a translation.

·She was no more able to give up working than to stop eating.

·She was transferred from another unit rather than promoted from inside.

(选自《中式英语之鉴》pp. 342-343)

▍Sample Topic

Which one is the most important for teacher of high school? The ability to help students plan for their future; the ability to find the students who need the most help and to give that help; or the ability to encourage students to learn on their own outside of the classroom.

▍Sample Essay

Version 1

Just like parents, a school plays many important roles in educating the next generation. This is especially true for high school teachers, whose students are on the verge of becoming young adults. Walking into any high school, you will see some teachers counsel students about the future, some put in the extra effort in tutoring those falling behind, and some students are encouraged to think outside the box and learn outside of the classroom. Among these three things, I think encouraging students to learn on their own is more important than to help them plan for their future or to give special care to those in need, because it can help students discover their true passion, enhance the overall learning results and better prepare them for the next chapter—college.

Version 2

A school teacher plays many important roles in educating the next generation. This is especially true for high school teachers, whose students are on the verge of becoming young adults. Walking into any high school, you will see some teachers counsel students about the future, some put in the extra effort in tutoring those falling behind, and some encourage students to think outside the box and learn outside of the classroom. Among these three things, I think encouraging students to learn on their own is the most important thing to do, because it can help students discover their true passion, enhance the overall learning results and better prepare them for the next chapter—college.

15 递进

在英文写作中,除了对单个词句的斟酌,还需要特别注意句子内在的逻辑关系。就英文而言,常见的逻辑关系悉数有十大类。“逻辑连接词”板块主要对最基本的三大逻辑关系进行讲解和排雷,分别是递进关系、转折关系和因果关系,外加两个在逻辑连接中经常被误用的词——连词 while 和介词 with。本集课程重点对递进关系及其修改方法进行详细讲解。

▍Author’s Comment

The simplest and doubtless the most common sequence of ideas in expository prose is one in which a statement is followed by another statement that adds something to the first. The second statement will offer more information on the subject, supporting evidence for the argument, further development of the idea, the next event in the narrative, or the like.

Although this simple relation of addition or amplification can often be taken for granted, a connecting word—“and,” “also,” “too,” “moreover,” “besides,” “furthermore,” etc.—may be required to express it.

▍Addition or Amplification

① 例1:

A: As a result of successive defeats, it lost large numbers of men, and morale continued to sink. The mood among the officers and men was defeatist and war-weary. The people in the KMT areas rose up in struggle, making the KMT army’s rear area insecure.

译文:敌军在节节败退中折了兵,也伤了士气。军官和士兵们都感觉挫败和厌战。国民党地区的民众在抗争中起义,也使得国民党后方不稳。

B: As a result of successive defeats, it had lost large numbers of men, and morale continued to sink: the mood among the officers and men was defeatist and war-weary. Moreover, the people in the KMT areas rose up in struggle, making the KMT army’s rear insecure.

② 例2:

A: This fact tells us that the policies pursued by the feudal rulers were intended to weaken certain nationalities. This was particularly true of imperialist policies.

译文:事实说明封建君主的政策有意损害一些民族的利益。帝国主义的政策更是如此。

B: This fact tells us that the policies of the feudal rulers were intended to weaken certain nationalities. This was also and particularly true of the policies of the imperialists.

(选自《中式英语之鉴》pp. 382-384)

▍Sample Topic

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The food we eat today is much healthier than in the past.

▍Sample Essay

Version 1

People nowadays are much less likely to die from starvation or lack of nutrition than they were in the past. It is easy to make the false connection that eating more means to eat more healthily. But that is not always the case. In fact, modern people are often eating worse, because the food on our table today is ever more processed, ever more polluted, and ever more over-sized.

Version 2

People nowadays are much less likely to die from starvation or lack of nutrition than they were in the past, and it is easy to make the false connection that eating more means eating more healthily. But that is not always the case. In fact, modern people are often eating worse, because the food on our table today is ever more processed, ever more polluted, and ever more over-sized.

16 转折

在英文写作中,除了对单个词句的斟酌,还需要特别注意句子内在的逻辑关系。就英文而言,常见的逻辑关系悉数有十大类。“逻辑连接词”板块主要对最基本的三大逻辑关系进行讲解和排雷,分别是递进关系、转折关系和因果关系,外加两个在逻辑连接中经常被误用的词——连词 while 和介词 with。本集课程重点对转折关系及其修改方法进行详细讲解。

▍Author’s Comment

Another common sequence of ideas is one in which the second opposes or qualifies the first. The content of the two successive clauses or sentences is not cumulative【累加】 but contradictory. There are a great many words and phrases that can express this relation: “but,” “yet,” “although,” “however,” “nevertheless,” “on the other hand,” “in spite of,” and so on.

It’s more important to use these, where appropriate, than it is to use words expressing addition or amplification. Although the lack of an “and” or a “furthermore” may make sentences seem jerky and disconnected, readers will still be able to follow the writer’s line of thought. But if there is no “but” or “on the contrary” to signal that the writer is changing direction, readers will be misled, at least until they are well into the second sentence.

▍Contrast or Opposition

① 例1:

A: During the next six months, because the British side stuck to its position on the question of sovereignty over Hong Kong, there was no progress in the negotiations. In March 1983 Mrs. Thatcher wrote to the Chinese Premier promising that at a certain stage she would propose to the British Parliament that sovereignty over all of Hong Kong be returned to China.

译文:在接下来的六个月里,由于英国对香港主权问题不肯退让,谈判一直没有什么进展。在1983 年3月,撒切尔夫⼈写信给中国总理,保证会在恰当的时候向英国国会提议把香港的主权完全交还给中国。

B: During the next six months, because the British side stuck to its position on the question of sovereignty over Hong Kong, there was no progress in the negotiations. In March 1983, however, Mrs. Thatcher wrote to the Chinese Premier promising that at a certain stage she would propose to the British Parliament that sovereignty over all of Hong Kong be returned to China.

② 例2:

A: I am a layman in natural science. As my trip to Shanghai coincides with your discussion of a ten-year plan for science, I’d like to avail myself of this opportunity to touch on a few questions.

译文:我是个自然科学的外行。我去上海的时候正好赶上你针对未来十年科学领域计划的讨论会,所以我想抽点时间来和你简单讨论几个问题。

B: I am a layman in natural science. But as my trip to Shanghai coincides with your discussion of a ten-year plan for science, I’d like to avail myself of this opportunity to touch on a few questions.

(选自《中式英语之鉴》pp. 385-387)

▍Sample Topic

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People who cannot accept criticism from others will not be successful at working in a group.

▍Sample Essay

Version 1

From team projects at school to team-building events at work, the ability to work in a group seems very important these days. It is important to keep in mind that not everyone works well with other people. Some people think whether a person can accept criticism is the key to his working well in a team. I think this quality is indeed a good indicator, because a person’s reaction to criticism says a lot about his compassion, reflectiveness and communication, all of them are critical traits of a good team player.

Version 2

From team projects at school to team-building events at work, the ability to work in a group seems very important these days. However, it is important to keep in mind that not everyone works well with other people. Some people think whether a person can accept criticism is the key to his working well in a team. I think this quality is indeed a good indicator, because a person’s reaction to criticism says a lot about his compassion, reflectiveness and communication, all of which are critical traits of a good team player.

17 因果

在英文写作中,除了对单个词句的斟酌,还需要特别注意句子内在的逻辑关系。就英文而言,常见的逻辑关系悉数有十大类。“逻辑连接词”板块主要对最基本的三大逻辑关系进行讲解和排雷,分别是递进关系、转折关系和因果关系,外加两个在逻辑连接中经常被误用的词——连词 while 和介词 with。本集课程重点对因果关系及其修改方法进行详细讲解。

▍Author’s Comment

This type of connective includes such expressions as “because,” “since,” “so that,” “as a result,” “for this reason,” “therefore,” “accordingly,” etc. They are needed when one clause or sentence shows the consequence of another.

These connectives are even more essential to readers’ understanding than are those that express contrast. So fundamental is the concept of cause and effect that if readers fail to perceive that relation where the writer intended it, they will miss a crucial element of meaning.

▍Cause or Effect

① 例1:

A: Private schools are in difficulty now because they can no longer rely on warlords and bureaucrat-capitalists for financial resources as they used to. Their school farmland was distributed to peasants during the agrarian reform. The government should show concern for these difficulties.

译文:私立学校现在处境艰难,因为他们不再有军阀和官僚资本家的资金支持。学校的地在土地改革的时候也分给了农民。政府应该关心一下这些学校所处的困境。

B: Private schools are having difficulties now, because they can no longer rely on warlords and bureaucrat-capitalists for financial support, and because their farmland was distributed to peasants during the agrarian reform. The government should concern itself with these difficulties.

② 例2:

A: However, it is not possible to train intellectuals of working class and peasant origins all at once. That calls for planned steps and long-term effort. The difficulty is especially great because our workers and peasants have long suffered from exploitation and oppression, and many of them are illiterate. Difficult as it is, university educators should pay more attention to it.

译文:然而,同时培养工人阶级和农民出身的知识分子是不可行的。这需要长期的计划和努力。考虑到我们的工人和农民长期受到剥削和压迫,很多人都没有文化,这件事就变得更加艰难。虽然如此艰难,但大学教育者们应该更加用心。

B: However, it is not possible to train intellectuals of working class and peasant origins all at once. That calls for planned steps and long-term effort. The difficulty is especially great because our workers and peasants have long suffered from exploitation and oppression, and many of them are illiterate. Precisely because this problem is so difficult, university educators should pay more attention to it.

(选自《中式英语之鉴》pp. 388-389)

▍Sample Topic

Some people like to record their life by sharing pictures and other information on social-networking sites. Others keep this information to themselves and never share it online. Which do you prefer?

▍Sample Essay

Version 1

Over the past decade, social media has become an indispensable part of many people’s lives. It is not uncommon to see someone constantly posting updates on Facebook, because visiting the coffee house is newsworthy material. On the other hand, there are also people who choose to be social media recluse, avoiding it at all costs. I think we should embrace social media. It is the new norm for social connections and interpersonal communications.

Version 2

Over the past decade, social media has become an indispensable part of many people’s lives. It is not uncommon to see someone constantly posting updates on Facebook, as if visiting the coffee house is newsworthy material. On the other hand, there are also people who choose to be social media recluse, avoiding it at all costs. I think we should embrace social media, because it is the new norm for social connections and interpersonal communications.

18 while 的使用

在英文写作中,除了对单个词句的斟酌,还需要特别注意句子内在的逻辑关系。就英文而言,常见的逻辑关系悉数有十大类。“逻辑连接词”板块主要对最基本的三大逻辑关系进行讲解和排雷,分别是递进关系、转折关系和因果关系,外加两个在逻辑连接中经常被误用的词——连词 while 和介词 with。本集课程重点对连词 while 的用法及其修改方法进行详细讲解。

▍Author’s Comment

The subordinating conjunction “while” is a slippery word that can be used in several senses, some of which are more acceptable than others. Its primary meaning is “at the same time as”. Most language critics recommend that the word be restricted to this use, linking two simultaneous events: eg. While mother read the letter aloud, the family listened in silence.

Still, there is widespread, if sometimes grudging, acceptance of “while” used to represent a contrast without any reference to time, in the sense of either “although” or “whereas”:

eg. While everyone was astonished by the news, no one said a word until she had finished.

▍”While” in Question

① 例1:

The visitors were offered tea in the courtyard, while dinner was served indoors. (“While” = “whereas”? or “at the same time”?)

② 例2:

A: As all of us lack experience in diplomacy, we should carry forward democracy. Three cobblers with their wits combined equal Zhuge Liang, the mastermind. While soliciting everybody’s opinion, we should stress centralism. Efforts must be made to make democracy prevail in our embassies. Stress only on centralism without democracy will lead to bureaucracy. Advocating democracy can help us get rid of bureaucracy.

译文:由于我们在外交方面缺乏经验,我们应该倡导民主。毕竟,三个臭皮匠顶过一个诸葛亮。在征集所有人的意见时,我们还应强调集中。要努力在我们的大使馆内发展民主观念。只有集中没有民主会导致官僚主义,而推崇民主有助于我们摆脱官僚主义。

B: Since none of us is experienced in diplomacy, we should cultivate democracy. As the old saying goes, “Three cobblers with their wits combined match Zhuge Liang, the mastermind.” Of course, while it is necessary to solicit everybody’s opinion, we should stress centralism. But we must establish democracy in our embassies. Stressing centralism to the neglect of democracy will lead to bureaucratism, while promoting democracy can help us get rid of it.

(选自《中式英语之鉴》pp. 391-392)

▍Sample Topic

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Being creative is more important in finding the best solution to a problem than planning carefully.

▍Sample Essay

Version 1

Problem-solving is a highly-prized skill, and people seem to have very different ideas about the most important trait of a good problem-solver. Some people think the key to finding the best solution to a problem is creativity, and others believe careful planning would eliminate the problem in the first place. I believe being creative is more critical, because creativity is a contributor to not only better solutions, but also more solutions.

Version 2

Problem-solving is a highly-prized skill, and people seem to have very different ideas about the most important trait of a good problem-solver. Some people think the key to finding the best solution to a problem is creativity, while others believe careful planning would eliminate the problem in the first place. I believe being creative is more critical, because creativity often leads to not only better solutions, but also more solutions.

19 with的用法

在英文写作中,除了对单个词句的斟酌,还需要特别注意句子内在的逻辑关系。就英文而言,常见的逻辑关系悉数有十大类。“逻辑连接词”板块主要对最基本的三大逻辑关系进行讲解和排雷,分别是递进关系、转折关系和因果关系,外加两个在逻辑连接中经常被误用的词——连词 while 和介词 with。本集课程重点对介词 with 的用法及其修改方法进行详细讲解。

▍Author’s Comment

“With” is a preposition, but it is so often used as a logical connective—and so often in a vague or confusing manner—that it is worth considering alongside the conjunctions, adverbs and adverbial phrases that usually serve to tie ideas together.

A moment’s reflection will show that “with” can be used in a great variety of senses. The following are only a few of the relations that this versatile word can express:

Accompaniment: he went with the children to see their teacher.

Agency: with a nail and some twine she was able to repair the latch.

Characterization: the girl with most courage spoke up first.

Manner: with dogged persistence, they trudged on through the snow.

Possession: the man with the key is not here.

▍“With” in Question

① 例1:

A: With the rapid increase of automobile production and import starting from the early 1980s, Chen was promoted as the director of the newly formed Automotive Office in the Ministry.

译文:随着八十年代初汽车生产产量和进口量的快速增长,陈被提拔为新成立车管所的主管。

B: When the production and import of automobiles began to increase in the early 1980s, Chen was promoted as the director of the newly formed Automotive Office in the Ministry.

② 例2:

A: With professionals familiar with the country’s laws and proficient at foreign languages, these offices will save the time and energy of foreign trademark registrants.

译文:有了这些既熟悉外国法律又精通外语的专业人士,这些部门能够帮助需注册外国商标的人节约时间和精力。

B: Staffed by professionals familiar with the country’s laws and proficient at foreign languages, these offices will save time and energy for registrants of foreign trademarks.

③ 例3:

A: With wide streets and a small population, the city is filled with gas stations and karaoke bars.

译文:由于街道宽广,⼈口稀少,这个城市到处都是加油站和KTV。

B: The city, which has wide streets and a small population, is filled with gas stations and karaoke bars.

(选自《中式英语之鉴》pp. 394-395)

▍Sample Topic

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People in the past are more interested in improving their neighborhood (the area where they live) than now.

▍Sample Essay

Version 1

With human beings having been living in communities since we were foragers in the African safari, we have prized ourselves in taking good care of our communities. However, recent social trends have led to the argument that modern people are less interested in improving their neighborhood than people in the past. Sadly, I think there is a lot of truth in this argument, but I believe the two most obvious culprits【引起问题的事物】 are technology and education.

Version 2

Human beings have been living in communities since we were foragers in the African safari, and we have prized ourselves in taking good care of our communities. However, recent social trends have led to the argument that modern people are less interested in improving their neighborhood than people in the past. Sadly, I think there is a lot of truth in this argument, and I believe the two most obvious culprits are technology and education.

文章作者: Mr joe
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